Technical University of Denmark

Programmable Phase Optics









The Generalised Phase Contrast method Advanced optical micro-manipulation Phase-only optical encryption and decryption Spatial phase-only modulation by the reverse phase contrast method GPC implemented in plana-integrated micro-optics Complex field coupling to advanced optical fibers 2D polarization encoding using Spatial light modulators

GPC implemented by planar-integrated micro-optics

In most applications, the GPC method has been implemented in macro-optical systems. In these systems, however, the optical components are well defined and the effect of the phase contrast filter as well as the imaging response could be efficiently analysed based on the paraxial approximation. To realise the applications of the GPC method to current technologies in electro-optical data transport, it is important to carry out the method in a scaled-down optical system such as its implementation using planar-integrated micro-optical components. Integration of free-space micro-optics in a surface of a thick transparent substrate has attracted much attention because its concept mutually complies with the requirements in the development of integrated electronic circuits. Its implementation thereby expands to "real world" applications such as in the fields of micro-optical-electro-mechanical systems (MOEMs), opto-electronics, optical computing, optical communications, and more.

Figure 1. Implementation of the generalised phase contrast method in planar-integrated micro-optics platform. Diffractive optical elements form the 4-f optical system that is fabricated on top of a 12-mm-thick quartz glass substrate. The 5-micron-diameter phase contrast filter is etched at the Fourier plane

The folded version of a 4-f lens configuration is implemented in a planar integrated micro-optics platform as shown in Figure 1 (see further reading). Using multimask lithography, the multiple-phase level diffractive micro-optical elements were fabricated on the top-side of the substrate while the base contains reflection-coated surfaces. An incident wavefront, which is normal to the planar setup, is coupled into the substrate through a binary diffraction grating with period 2 micron. The beam is deflected inside the 12 mm-thick fused silica substrate with a propagation angle of 12 degrees. After reflection from the base, the beam is focused by the 5 mm-diameter diffractive micro-lens (L1). The micro-lenses are reflection coated and are fabricated using two binary lithographic steps that make up a 4-phase level element. The focal length and f-number of the micro-lenses are f=25 mm and f/#~5 respectively. The distance from the coupling grating to L1 is equivalent to the focal length, which indicates that the object plane is located at the surface of the input grating. L1 focuses the beam to the Fourier plane where a reflection coated phase contrast filter (PCF) is fabricated on the substrate to perform a pi-phase shift of the on-axis region of the focused light. The PCF is designed for operation at wavelength=633 nm and is etched as a 5-micron-diameter hole on the substrate. Anisotropic etching process is used to form a steep-edged cylindrical hole. The reverse Fourier transform is performed in the second half of the symmetric system. Both micro-lenses are slightly elliptical in order to compensate for the astigmatism due to the oblique optical axis.

Figure 2(a) shows a low-contrast image when the angle of the collimated beam is set such that the focus is slightly off from the PCF at the Fourier plane. This also represents the intensity distribution of the phase object. Setting the proper angle of the input beam, such that the focus is directly phase shifted by the PCF, yields a high contrast image as shown in Fig. 2(c). The images are viewed using an input aperture with diameter of 5 mm that corresponds to an aperture(Diameter=2.5 mm) at the surface of the planar optics. Figure 2(b) shows the photograph of the planar integrated micro-optics on a 12 mm-thick fused silica substrate.

Figure 2. Intensity distribution of the (a) phase object and (c) the high contrast image at the output. (b) Shows the photograph of the planar integrated micro-optics on a 12 mm-thick fused silica substrate.

Further reading

Daria, V.R.; Rodrigo, P.J.; Sinzinger, S.; Glückstad, J., Phase-only optical decryption in a planar-integrated micro-optics system, Opt. Engineering. (in press) 

Daria V.R.; Eriksen, R.L; Sinzinger, S.; Glückstad, J.; Optimising the generalised phase contrast method in a planar-optical device. Journ of Optics A: Pure and Appl Opt (2003) 5, s211-s215

Daria, V.R.M.; Glückstad, J.; Mogensen, P.C.; Eriksen, R.L.; Sinzinger, S., Implementing the generalized phase-contrast method in a planar-integrated micro-optics platform. Opt. Lett. (2002) 27, 945-947

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Last update: 23-04-2009